Monument of mining history Point cone mine dump Hohe Linde (1)
The pyramid north of the town of Sangerhausen can be seen far across the landscape and is the mine dump from the former Thomas Müntzer mine and a highly visible monument of mining history. The basis for more than 3,000 years of mining in the area of Sangerhausen was a rock layer of about 30 cm thickness – the copper shale. Mining in this area was first mentioned in 1006 in the deed of gift from the Emperor HEINRICH II. The technological development of mining is impressive in the size and composition of mine dumps and reaches from small family ones from the very beginning of mining to huge ones from the more recent past. In 1944 a new mine was sunk to a depth of 52 m below the surface north of Sangerhausen. After the standstill after the war, work could be continued from 1947 onwards. The first large copper mine in the mining area of Sangerhausen was named after THOMAS MÜNTZER in 1950. Three years later the depth had already reached 686 m. After the Brühltalhalde "mine dump" had reached its full capacity a new possibility for storing the mine waste had to be found. Therefore, the Hohe Linde mine dump was put into operation in 1955. The mine waste material was transported by cable car for 900 m, then transferred to a lifter and from there rock was hauled to the final dumping point. Production and waste dumping of the Thomas Müntzer mine came to a standstill in 1990. About 20 million tons of deadrock are deposited in the Hohe Linde forming a nearly 150 m high dump. Due to the heavy metal content of the rocks and the absence of soil overburden the mine dump has no vegetation.

Tourist information Sangerhausen
Tel.: 00493464-19433
Wippra Zone Pferdeköpfe ( 2 )
The Wippra zone stretches across the area of the landmark along a line in an easterly direction from Breitungen via the Kohlestraße "coal street" to Gorenzen. It contains metamorphic rocks. Driving along the road L 230 from Grillenberg to Wippra we cross the Kohlestraße. Its name dates back to the time when charcoal was transported out of the forest to the metallurgical works. Right at the crossing is a car park. Walking from there we reach the former quarry at the Pferdeköpfe in five minutes. Greenschist crops out there. It was used in road construction before quarrying was shut down around 1960. We pass a geodetic point on our way to the quarry. That is one of five points set at different places in the Harz in the 1960’s for watching the potential Harzraising effect.
Ruin Grillenburg (3)
The ruins of the Grillenburg can be found above the site Grillenberg. We follow the signs for the pathway starting at a small parking place at the bottom of the Schlossberge on the site. The fortress was mainly erected using conglomerates and sandstones of the Rotliegend red beds (about 300 to 255 million years ago). Remarkable is the use of bricks as construction material for the superstructure. In 1217 the Grellenberch was first mentioned in a written document. It was used for protecting the basin area of Sangerhausen. Partly inhabited in 1483, the fortress was a ruin 100 years later. The village is much older and is mentioned in the so-called Hersfelder Zehntregister at the end of 9th century. We can find other witnesses of the past in the area of Grillenberg, for example the deserted medieval village Wüstung Hohenrode. Excavations have already been carried out there since the 1930’s.

Guided tours on request:
Biosphere Reserve Karst Landscape South Harz
Tel.: 004934651-298890
Zechstein belt of the South Harz Mining Museum Röhrigschacht Wettelrode ( 4 )
The museum in Wettelrode is nestled in the historic mining landscape of the south-eastern Harz foothills. Copper mining history in the region – once the largest copper ore mining area in Europe – can easily be recognized here. The above ground museum provides information about the formation of the deposit, geology and mineralogy as well as mining. The steel made winding apparatus is clearly visible from far across the country. It is one of the oldest remaining mine hoists of Europe. Where the mine waste is located, there is an exhibition about mine hoisting technology and machinery, including a rack railway which was only used below ground for copper mining. A small exhibition informs visitors about the Biosphere Reserve Karst Landscape South Harz. The mining museum was opened in 1991. We can descend 283 m deep into the earth with original winding equipment. Then the mine train takes you over 1,000 m to a mining area from the 19th century where the development of the mining techniques is explained and demonstrated on exhibits. The trip below ground can accommodate up to 31 people and lasts for 75 minutes. An interesting mining trail starts at the mining museum and leads through the old mining area for 4 km. The two routes show copper mining from the 14th to the 19th century including geological outcrops, water facilities, costeaning ditches and a ventilation oven. The mining trail passes the lake Kunstteich which was built in 1728 and used for mining water management purposes till 1880.

Opening hours: June – Aug Tue – Sun 9.30 am – 5.00 pm
Sept – May Wed – Sun 9.30 am – 5.00 pm
man-ridings 10.00 am, 11.15 am, 12.30 pm, 1.45 pm, 3.00 pm
Tel.: 00493464-587816
Rogenstein · Roestone Schlösschenkopf at Lengefeld ( 5 )
The Schlösschenkopf rises up between Sangerhausen and Lengefeld and is crowned by the Moltkewarte – a look out built in 1903 at its highest point. From the tower you will have a wonderful view to the surrounding area. Roestone was mainly used for construction material. It was excavated from several small quarries in the surrounding area of the Moltkewarte. Near these sites we can see houses, churches and walls built with Roestone. This special limestone comes from the lower Bunter. At that time about 240 million years ago this area was covered by a shallow, warm sea with a high salt content. Very small sandy carbonate pearls (so-called ooides) were formed in the water and looked like roe and therefore were called like that. Following the signs you can easily find the pathway from Lengefeld to the Moltkewarte.
Karst Trail Dinsterbach Swallow Hole (6)
About one kilometre east of Questenberg not far away from the road to Hainrode lies the Dinsterbach swallow hole. It is the biggest swallow hole in the area of the Karst Trail, and the place where the creek Dinsterbach continues to flow underground. Its water dissolves the gypsum. Due to this there are often falling rocks. On the path you will find an information board. Walking along the grassland we reach the next board after five minutes which has information about the swallow hole located there. The sinkhole on the grassland between the path and the edge of the forest marks the underground route of the Dinsterbach. The Karst Trail about 200 km long links the karst landscape of the South Harz across the borders of the federal states of Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia and Lower Saxony. At selected points, boards inform about the manifold karst phenomena.

Opening hours: Moltkewarte at good weather:
April – Sept Fri – Sun and at bank holidays 2.00 – 6.00 pm
Geology of the area
Between Sangerhausen and Wallhausen there is the lowland of the river Helme. Most of the clays, silts, sands and gravel are up to 2 million years old and have a thickness of 50 m, with which the Helme filled its lowland in the Pleistocene. They form together with the rocks of the Tertiary the unconsolitated sediment level. The 250 million years old clay, silt and sandstones of the Triassic are deposited in the subjacent table mountains (platform cover). Limestone, anhydrite and salt rocks of the Zechstein belong to the sediments of the platform cover, too. Due to tectonic processes about 80 – 50 million years ago the original flat deposits sediments changed their position. Today rock formations of different aged rocks from different sedimentation areas are laying beside and proving vertical movements, stretching partly several hundred metres. These tectonically caused fracturing is called “Saxonian fault block tectonics”. Soluble processes caused by water begin as soon as the rocks of the Zechstein come near the surface due to their chemical contents. The process is known as karstification. This sulphate karst can be found in the whole southern Harz showing romantic caves, bizarre morphologic shapes and a rare flora seen along the karst walking paths. The roughly consolidated gravel (conglomerates) and the red sandstone of the Rotliegend red beds are older than the chemical sediments of the Zechstein. These are erosion results of the old Variscan mountain building. They come to the surface in the area of the Hornburg Sattel (anticline). The Basement with the rocks of the Wippra Zone begins in the north. Caused by metamorphosis (rock changing) during the formation of the Variscan mountain building 350 – 330 million years ago argillite and clay slates were formed out of clay and sandy sea deposits of the Ordovician and Silurian. To the west, sediments of the Lower Carboniferous follow.
Periodic lakeBauerngraben (7)
West of Questenberg is the Bauerngraben. It is a 10 – 15 m deep sink in the valley of the Glasebach, which “disappears” at this place in a swallow hole of a small river under a steep high karst mountain range. Water-soluble rocks are the basis for it – at this place it is gypsum. The water can seep away beneath the earth and then continues flowing in hollows beneath the earth. However, the 350 m long and 100 m wide sink of the Bauerngraben empties and fills with water at sporadic times. Due to washed up sediments the swallow holes become clogged and the incoming water forms a pool. A lake arises. After a certain time the water dissolves the rocks again and the lake empties. The car park at the road from Roßla to Agnesdorf is a suitable starting point for a walk to the Bauerngraben.
Witnesses of geologyAlabaster balls and glacial pans (8 )
Embedded in the deep break-through valley of the Nasse is the site Questenberg. Its symbol is the so-called Queste, an old sun symbol. It is decorated with fresh greenery on Whit Monday every year. The so-called Questenfest takes place over several days and has been celebrated for centuries. Gypsum with alabaster balls is outcropping at the rock face at the eastern slope of the Questenberg. Alabaster balls are probably formed from calcium sulphate, which has collected at individual places within the original rocks before finally hardening to form the alabaster balls. If you go on the road coming from Hainrode you will have the best view of it. The glacial pans at the bottom of the Questenberg north of the village are also interesting. The ruin of the Questenburg, dating back to the 13th century, is on the Schlossberg and not far away from the village.
One of the largest gypsum karst cavesHeimkehle near Uftrungen (9)
The visitor’s entrance of the Heimkehle is to the west of the road between Rottleberode and Berga. The border between Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia crosses above the cave. Visitors can see 750 m of the cave which extends for approximately 2 km. The way around leads to corridors and halls, amongst them the Großer Dom (22 m high). The Heimkehle was first mentioned in a border document, dating back to 1753. First attempts for opening it up were made in the 20th century. Guided tours have been available since 1920. During World War II a production plant of the Junkers Flugzeugwerke was installed. Moreover an external camp of the Mittelbau- Dora Concentration Camp was located in Rottleberode. The Heimkehle is one of about 200 known caves of the sulphate karst of the Südharz. The cave arose when water ingressed through crevices and cracks in the anhydrite and dissolved it.

Opening hours: Nov. – April Tue – Sun 10.00 am – 4.00 pm
May – Oct. Tue – Sun 10.00 am – 5.00 pm
Tel.: 004934653-305
Gypsum quarryingThe Krebsbachwand near Rottleberode (10)
South west of Rottleberode the Alter Stolberg peaks the Aue from the Thyra and the Krebsbach with an area level up to 100 m high. The Krebsbachwand is important due to gypsum quarrying. In that area of the wall the gypsuming rate of the anhydrite was higher than the solution rate of gypsum, thus forming a 10 – 30 m strong gypsum crust at the surface over the lower lying anhydrite. This gypsum crust was excavated between 1950 and 1990. The precipice of the Krebsbachwand remained. Recultivation measures of the company Knauf Gips KG aim to rebuild stable forests. The rock areas form a biotope for rare species. Due to ongoing surface mining operations in border areas of the Krebsbachwand the excavations are not accessible at present.
Witnesses of historyNeue Morungsburg (11)
The ruins of the two fortresses Alt and Neu Morungen are not far away from Morungen. Alt Morungen was abandoned after erecting Neu Morungen around 1200. The owners of the fortress changed several times. The counts of Stolberg also were connected to it. HEINRICH VON MORUNGEN (around 1200) was a famous minstrel. We can find Bunter, Zechstein limestone and slates of the surrounding area in the walls of the fortresses. The region has many varieties of geological multiforms. Beside the Wippra Zone stretching northern along the site with its metamorphic rocks we can also see conglomerates, catching the eye with a significant red. An ore vein goes along the area with barite and copper ore. We can easily see that ore veine in an exposure below the Neue Morungsburg close to the forest way in the valley north of the border of Morungen.

Knauf Gips KG
Important palatinate in medieval timeKönigspfalz Tilleda (12)
The Königspfalz set on the hill Pfingstberg is on the bottom of the Kyffhäuser mountains. Erected in 972 the Kyffhäuser was a wedding present from emperor OTTO II († 983) for his Byzantine wife THEOPHANO († 991). Tilleda belonged to the most famous palatinates of the empire till the late medieval times. As the only completely excavated palatinate it is today a showcase example of a monarch residence of early and late medieval times. Fundaments and parts of the buildings were exposed and partly reconstructed by substantial excavations. The whole facility forms a unique open air museum showing a good insight into people’s life and work in the medieval time. The constructions are built from sandstone and dolomite, which were quarried in the surrounding area. The defence complex offers a fantastic panoramic sight.
Wetland of international importance Reservoir Helme (13)
At the end of Kelbra towards Sondershausen there is the Helmestausee, over 600 hectares in size. It was built for flood protection and put into operation in 1969. Part of the reservoir (emptied in winter) is a wetland of international importance and European bird protection area. More than 300 bird species like ducks and grebes or bluethroats live on the water surface and in the wide reed and grasslands. More than 20,000 cranes regularly roost here in autumn. Beginning at the parking place we follow our way westwards to the Numburg. Not far behind the Numburg, close to the shore line a salt spring comes to the surface, eluviating enbedded rocksalt and potassiferous salt layers of the Zechstein and smelling like sulphur. Beside it you can find the ruins of a small quarry with Bunter.

Opening hours palatinate Tilleda:
April – Oct. 10.00 am – 6.00 pm Nov. & March 10.00 am – 4.00 pm
Tel.: 004934651-90268
Rose Garden and Spengler Museum Sangerhausen (14)
Sangerhausen was first mentioned in a document in 10th century. Around 1200 Sangerhausen received its town charter. Widely reconstructed buildings in the old town are worth a round walk. The Ulrich church dates back to the first half of 12th century, a treasure of Romanesque architecture. Worth seeing is the Jakobi church showing a rich interior. Since 1249 the town has been historically connected with the Saxonian dynasty of the Wettiner. Copper mining since 14th century and metallurgy marked the town development. In 1815 Sangerhausen became a part of Prussia and developed to an important industrial area in the second half of the 19th century. The remarkable rose garden arranged in 1903 is a landscape park inheriting the most important rose collection of the world. More than 8,300 rose varieties and species can be seen there. In the Spengler Museum you can adventure 6,000 years of human settlement in the region of Sangerhausen. About 2,000 exhibits are shown in six different sections (geology, nature study, palaeontology, prehistory, town history, mining). The biggest attraction is the complete skeleton of the old mammoth. The first parts of the animal were discovered in the ice-aged layers of the gravel pit near Edersleben in September 1930. The local researcher GUSTAV ADOLF SPENGLER († 1961) was informed and saved the skeleton in the years 1932 and 1933. Spengler’s home in the old town of Sangerhausen was opened as an external museum in 2001. Walking from the museum you can reach it on foot in about 15 minutes. The museum’s administration offers guided tours and project days as special programmes.

Opening hours of the Spengler museum: Tue – Sun 1.00 pm – 5.00 pm
(Spengler’s home, Hospitalstraße 56 only Sun 1.00 pm – 5.00 pm).
Tel.: 00493464-573048
Selected information points Overnight accommodations
Tel.: 0049 3464 - 544644
MotivHotel-Pension „Am Rosarium“
Tel.: 0049 3464 - 578273
MotivA. L. Harzhotel Fünf Linden
Südharz/OT Wickerode
Tel.: 0049 34651 - 350
MotivHotel „Katharina“
Tel.: 0049 3464 - 24290
Publisher: Regionalverband Harz e. V., Hohe Straße 6, 06484 Quedlinburg
00493946-96410, E-Mail:
2nd Edition, 5 – 10 thousand
© Regionalverband Harz e. V. Quedlinburg 2013. All rights reserved.
Authors: Dr. Klaus George, Uwe Kramer, Christiane Linke,
Dr. Matthias Thomae, Martin Wadewitz, Dr. Jörg Ziebell
Translator: Silvia Baldauf
Photos: Biosphärenreservat Karstlandschaft Südharz, Dr. Klaus George,
Christiane Linke, RVH, Dr. Max Schwab, Spengler-Museum,
Dr. Matthias Thomae, Dr. Jörg Ziebell
Editors: Dr. Klaus George, Christiane Linke, Isabel Reuter
Design: Design Office Agentur für Kommunikation, Wernigerode
Print: Creaktiv GmbH & Co. KG, Goslar